Analysis of common features in natural scenes of Huy Can, Xuan Dieu, and Han Mac Tu
Nature is the eternal subject of poetry. The poets come to nature with sensitive, delicate and loving souls. No one forgets the world of Bong Lai, the fairy scene in Ly Bach’s poetry, the charming mountains and forests in Nguyen Trai’s poetry, and the simple rustic village in Nguyen Khuyen’s poetry. And no one forgets that in the New Poetry movement (1930 – 1945) there was a shout of “Here is the coming autumn” by Xuan Dieu, an immense affection for Huy Can’s “Trang Giang” and a sense of disappointment. play with “Here Vi Gia village” by Han Mac Tu.
Nature at the beginning of autumn in the North in “Here comes autumn” is beautiful but also sad – a beauty, a very new sadness, very different from medieval poetry.
If the artistic sense of medieval poetry is: taking nature as the standard of beauty for people – as Nguyen Du once described Thuy Van: “The full moon shape he has bloomed. Flowers smile dignified jade. Clouds lose hair, snow gives way to skin color” (Truyen Kieu) – for Xuan Dieu – “the newest of the new poets” – humans are the standard beauty for nature:
“The willow trees stand in mourning, their sad hair falls with thousands of tears.”
No one has a strange comparison like Xuan Dieu. The willow tree is as beautiful as a young woman standing with her hair down in mourning. Every hair is a sad strand, every willow branch is a hair. From ancient times to the past, there is no sadness that is as painful as mourning sadness. How many tears fell but the sadness did not subside. Willow groves with willow silk threads are made of long willow leaves that overlap each other “rows” and hang down like “tears” hanging over the sky, making the sadness of early autumn seem more and more poignant. And in that sadness also evokes a pain of loss:
“More than a flower has fallen off its branches In the garden of red and green colors, The streams are trembling and the leaves are dry, and the bones are thin and fragile”
Day after day passed, in autumn, the landscape changed, the trees were bare and bare, as if they were trembling, shivering slightly in the chilly wind: “I heard the cold flowing in the wind”. Xuan Dieu’s feeling of the cold coming in the wind is a new feeling. Nature stirs, stirs – this is shown in the art of using the consonant “r” (falling/shaking/shaking/shaking) and the consonant “m” (thin) – unlike nature in poetry Even though “Golden leaves will blow in the wind” (Autumn fishing – Nguyen Khuyen), the whole space of autumn nature is still mostly still and quiet Along with “golden leaves” in Nguyen Khuyen’s poetry. , everyone knows the painting “Golden Autumn” by the famous artist Levitan, but nowhere is there a new and unique yellow color like the yellow color of heaven and earth in autumn in “Here is the coming autumn” by Xuan Dieu. Those are not small yellow spots but a whole “golden space” – a very unique “fading” yellow color that is difficult to confuse. It is the yellow color of “the autumn soul through the color of leaves” (Ta Duc Hien) that makes autumn less sad and more poetic and lovely. “Autumn is coming!” – Xuan Dieu received the message of autumn and shouted with joy: “Here comes autumn! Autumn is coming!”. The bustling melody of the cheer makes us feel like Xuan Dieu is singing the song of aspiration to sympathize with life. The poet’s step to the autumn sky is full of “urgency”, “hurry”.
The same traditional sad beauty, but if the nature in “Here is the coming autumn” is beautiful, the nature in “Trang Giang” brings the majestic beauty of “wide sky”, “long river”. :
“The waves rippled with sadness, the boat went down the parallel water”…”The sun went down, the sky was deep, the river was long, the sky was wide, the wharf was lonely”
Nature here is full of classic colors. The river is immense, flowing in the middle of the empty space. The waves that overlap each other in layers never stop like endless sadness. In parallel with the boat drifting, passively surrendering to life, without a shred of hope is a manifestation of the sadness of separation and separation. So much water, so much sadness, the scene here is very sad: from “boat”, “dry wood” to “water”, “wave” and even “green shore”, “yellow beach”, “coastal wharf” Lieu” carries great sorrow. The constant “sad message” spreads throughout the poem and is most agonizing in the last image of the article:
“The heart of the country is full of water
No smoke at sunset also homesick”
Huy Can’s sadness is as endless as the endless waves of water, following the waves spreading far away, much sadder than that of Thoi Hieu (Dong Dynasty – China): “Yen Ba Giang Thuong Su Nhan Me” On the river smoke waves to sad anyone?). From that immense sadness, the beauty that emerges is the immense beauty of heaven and earth. Space expands to all dimensions in length – width, height – depth. It is the quiet, overwhelming beauty of the familiar, close-knit river space, built by Huy Can with simple images, into delicate, rich colors of classic but still new. Imprinted in the scene is a soul “bringing ancient sorrow” and something as if the ancient soul of the nation still lingers in the wide beach with the “lonely wharf”, with “the drift”. , “clouds”, “bird wings”, “afternoon shadows”, with “sunset smoke” with rich country love, burning skin in the poet’s heart.
Nature is refracted through the poet’s soul, carrying the poet’s sadness. The real and virtual beauty of the scene is the beauty in the author’s dismay. The immense sadness from the poet’s situation is sadness associated with nature. In “Trang Giang”, “sadness permeates every word”, as full as the flowing Red River.
In “Here comes next autumn” sadness radiates from loneliness and solitude, while in “Here in Vi Gia village” sadness gently rises from the forgotten consciousness of the poet. But different from “Here is the coming autumn” and “Trang Giang”, “This is Vi Gia village” is a poem “with emotional leap” (Vu Quan Phuong), with a very quick, very delicate emotional transition. , delicate. The poem has three stanzas, each stanza is a question associated with different moods of Han Mac Tu, associated with different beauties of the poetic Hue nature. In stanza one, the poet is happily “looking at the new sun rising in the sun”, watching the beautiful “whose garden is so green as jade” of Vi Gia village. It is the pristine beauty – holiness, the fresh, radiant, virgin beauty of Hue that appears clearly in the nostalgic line of Han Mac Tu. In the second stanza, the poet’s emotions suddenly subsided with sadness:
“The wind follows the wind and the clouds and the clouds
The water is sad, cornflower flowers
Whose boat docked at the moon river
Keep carrying moon tonight”
“Here comes autumn” talks about the sadness of fading, parting: “More than one flower has fallen, in the garden the red and green color” with a neutral expression: “more than one” accompaniment to the colors of Western culture. , full of freshness. “Truong Giang” talks about the sad separation of the scene: “The boat goes down the parallel water” with a classic impression. And “This is Vi Gia village” talks about the lonely and scattered sadness: “The wind follows the wind and the clouds and the clouds, the water is sad and the flowers are swaying” but it is not just that, but also the sadness of separation. forgotten. Perfume River drifting is the “moon river” carrying the gentle sadness of people’s hearts. From the virgin beauty of Hue dreaming of reality, Han Mac Tu’s line of associations is towards a blur of the landscape in separation. Just like Xuan Dieu’s sadness in “This is the coming autumn”, Han Mac Tu’s sadness here is also quiet, gentle, not constant and intense like Huy Can’s waves in “Trang Giang”.
With the traditional form of apocalyptic poetry, in general, the sadness of Xuan Dieu’s poetry is “sadness not to say”, of Huy Can’s poetry is “message of sadness”, of Han Mac Tu’s poetry is “sadness”. Nature in all three poems is beautiful and sad because of the lack of a human love. The human love that in each poem mentioned by the poet is to ease forgotten sadness (“Here is Vi Gia village”); remove loneliness, fear in the heart, find a warm country love (“Trang Giang”); remove the cold of people’s hearts, find a love, a desire to sympathize with nature and life (“Here comes autumn”). The poets have a subtle sense of nature as well as profoundly expressed their moods and emotions in the world before that nature.
Nature in new poetry is a contribution in terms of cultural ideas of the Vietnamese people. That has proved a love of homeland of new poets in general and of Xuan Dieu, Huy Can, and Han Mac Tu in particular.
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